Core CACREP/NCATE Objectives
Professional Orientation and Ethical Practice
- history and philosophy of the counseling profession;
- professional roles, functions, and relationships with other human service providers, including strategies for inter-agency/inter-organization collaboration and communications;
- counselors' roles and responsibilities as members of an interdisciplinary emergency management response team during a local, regional, or national crisis, disaster or other trauma-causing event;
- self-care strategies appropriate to the counselor role;
- counseling supervision models, practices, and processes;
- professional organizations, including membership benefits, activities, services to members, and current issues;
- professional credentialing, including certification, licensure, and accreditation practices and standards, and the effects of public policy on these issues;
- the role and process of the professional counselor advocating on behalf of the profession;
- advocacy processes needed to address institutional and social barriers that
- impede access, equity, and success for clients; and
- ethical standards of professional organizations and credentialing bodies, and applications of ethical and legal considerations in professional counseling.
Social and Cultural Diversity
- multicultural and pluralistic trends, including characteristics and concerns within and among diverse groups nationally and internationally;
- attitudes, beliefs, understandings, and acculturative experiences, including specific experiential learning activities designed to foster students' understanding of self and culturally diverse clients;
- theories of multicultural counseling, identity development, and social justice;
- individual, couple, family, group, and community strategies for working with and advocating for diverse populations, including multicultural competencies;
- counselors' roles in developing cultural self-awareness, promoting cultural social justice, advocacy and conflict resolution, and other culturally supported behaviors that promote optimal wellness and growth of the human spirit, mind, or body; and
- counselors' roles in eliminating biases, prejudices, and processes of intentional and unintentional oppression and discrimination.
Human Growth and Development
- theories of individual and family development and transitions across the life span;
- theories of learning and personality development, including current understandings about neurobiological behavior;
- effects of crises, disasters, and other trauma-causing events on persons of all ages;
- theories and models of individual, cultural, couple, family, and community resilience;
- a general framework for understanding exceptional abilities and strategies for differentiated interventions;
- human behavior, including an understanding of developmental crises, disability, psychopathology, and situational and environmental factors that affect both normal and abnormal behavior;
- theories and etiology of addictions and addictive behaviors, including strategies for prevention, intervention, and treatment; and
- theories for facilitating optimal development and wellness over the life span.
- career development theories and decision-making models;
- career, avocational, educational, occupational and labor market information resources, and career information systems;
- career development program planning, organization, implementation, administration, and evaluation;
- interrelationships among and between work, family, and other life roles and factors, including the role of multicultural issues in career development;
- career and educational planning, placement, follow-up, and evaluation;
- assessment instruments and techniques relevant to career planning and decision making; and
- career counseling processes, techniques, and resources, including those applicable to specific populations in a global economy.
- an orientation to wellness and prevention as desired counseling goals;
- counselor characteristics and behaviors that influence helping processes;
- essential interviewing and counseling skills;
- counseling theories that provide the student with models to conceptualize client presentation and that help the student select appropriate counseling interventions. Students will be exposed to models of counseling that are consistent with current professional research and practice in the field so they begin to develop a personal model of counseling;
- a systems perspective that provides an understanding of family and other systems theories and major models of family and related interventions;
- a general framework for understanding and practicing consultation; and
- crisis intervention and suicide prevention models, including the use of psychological first aid strategies.
- principles of group dynamics, including group process components, developmental stage theories, group members' roles and behaviors, and therapeutic factors of group work;
- group leadership or facilitation styles and approaches, including characteristics of various types of group leaders and leadership styles;
- theories of group counseling, including commonalities, distinguishing characteristics, and pertinent research and literature;
- group counseling methods, including group counselor orientations and behaviors, appropriate selection criteria and methods, and methods of evaluation of effectiveness; and
- direct experiences in which students participate as group members in a small group activity, approved by the program, for a minimum of 10 clock hours over the course of one academic term.
- historical perspectives concerning the nature and meaning of assessment;
- basic concepts of standardized and nonstandardized testing and other assessment techniques, including norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessment, environmental assessment, performance assessment, individual and group test and inventory methods, psychological testing, and behavioral observations;
- statistical concepts, including scales of measurement, measures of central tendency, indices of variability, shapes and types of distributions, and correlations;
- reliability (i.e., theory of measurement error, models of reliability, and the use of reliability information);
- validity (i.e., evidence of validity, types of validity, and the relationship between reliability and validity);
- social and cultural factors related to the assessment and evaluation of individuals, groups, and specific populations; and
- ethical strategies for selecting, administering, and interpreting assessment and evaluation instruments and techniques in counseling.
Research and Program Evaluation
- the importance of research in advancing the counseling profession;
- research methods such as qualitative, quantitative, single-case designs, action research, and outcome-based research;
- statistical methods used in conducting research and program evaluation;
- principles, models, and applications of needs assessment, program evaluation, and the use of findings to effect program modifications;
- the use of research to inform evidence-based practice; and
- ethical and culturally relevant strategies for interpreting and reporting the results of research and/or program evaluation studies.
School Counseling Specialty
- Knows history, philosophy, and trends in school counseling and educational systems.
- Understands ethical and legal considerations specifically related to the practice of school counseling.
- Knows roles, functions, settings, and professional identity of the school counselor in relation to the roles of other professional and support personnel in the school.
- Knows professional organizations, preparation standards, and credentials that are relevant to the practice of school counseling.
- Understands current models of school counseling programs (e.g., American School Counselor Association [ASCA] National Model) and their integral
- relationship to the total educational program.
- Understands the effects of (a) atypical growth and development, (b) health and wellness, (c) language, (d) ability level, (e) multicultural issues, and (f) factors of
- resiliency on student learning and development.
- Understands the operation of the school emergency management plan and the roles and responsibilities of the school counselor during crises, disasters, and
- other trauma-causing events
Skills and Practices
- Demonstrates the ability to apply and adhere to ethical and legal standards in school counseling.
- Demonstrates the ability to articulate, model, and advocate for an appropriate school counselor identity and program.
Counseling, Prevention and Intervention
- Knows the theories and processes of effective counseling and wellness programs for individual students and groups of students.
- Knows how to design, implement, manage, and evaluate programs to enhance the academic, career, and personal/social development of students.
- Knows strategies for helping students identify strengths and cope with environmental and developmental problems.
- Knows how to design, implement, manage, and evaluate transition programs, including school-to-work, postsecondary planning, and college admissions counseling.
- Understands group dynamics—including counseling, psycho-educational, task, and peer helping groups—and the facilitation of teams to enable students to overcome barriers and impediments to learning.
- Understands the potential impact of crises, emergencies, and disasters on students, educators, and schools, and knows the skills needed for crisis intervention.
Skills and Practices
- Demonstrates self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and the skills needed to relate to diverse individuals, groups, and classrooms.
- Provides individual and group counseling and classroom guidance to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students.
- Designs and implements prevention and intervention plans related to the effects of (a) atypical growth and development, (b) health and wellness, (c) language, (d)
- ability level, (e) multicultural issues, and (f) factors of resiliency on student learning and development.
- Demonstrates the ability to use procedures for assessing and managing suicide risk.
- Demonstrates the ability to recognize his or her limitations as a school counselor and to seek supervision or refer clients when appropriate.
Diversity and Advocacy
- Understands the cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and political issues surrounding diversity, equity, and excellence in terms of student learning.
- Identifies community, environmental, and institutional opportunities that enhance—as well as barriers that impede—the academic, career, and personal/social development of students.
- Understands the ways in which educational policies, programs, and practices can be developed, adapted, and modified to be culturally congruent with the needs of students and their families.
- Understands multicultural counseling issues, as well as the impact of ability levels, stereotyping, family, socioeconomic status, gender, and sexual identity, and their effects on student achievement.
Skills and Practices
- Demonstrates multicultural competencies in relation to diversity, equity, and opportunity in student learning and development.
- Advocates for the learning and academic experiences necessary to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students.
- Advocates for school policies, programs, and services that enhance a positive school climate and are equitable and responsive to multicultural student populations.
- Engages parents, guardians, and families to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students.
- Understands the influence of multiple factors (e.g., abuse, violence, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood depression) that may affect the personal, social, and academic functioning of students.
- Knows the signs and symptoms of substance abuse in children and adolescents, as well as the signs and symptoms of living in a home where substance abuse occurs.
- Identifies various forms of needs assessments for academic, career, and personal/social development.
Skills and Practices
- Assesses and interprets students' strengths and needs, recognizing uniqueness in cultures, languages, values, backgrounds, and abilities.
- Selects appropriate assessment strategies that can be used to evaluate a student's academic, career, and personal/social development.
- Analyzes assessment information in a manner that produces valid inferences when evaluating the needs of individual students and assessing the effectiveness of educational programs.
- Makes appropriate referrals to school and/or community resources.
- Assesses barriers that impede students' academic, career, and personal/social development.
Research and Evaluation
- Understands how to critically evaluate research relevant to the practice of school counseling.
- Knows models of program evaluation for school counseling programs.
- Knows basic strategies for evaluating counseling outcomes in school counseling (e.g., behavioral observation, program evaluation).
- Knows current methods of using data to inform decision making and accountability (e.g., school improvement plan, school report card).
- Understands the outcome research data and best practices identified in the school counseling research literature.
Skills and Practices
- Applies relevant research findings to inform the practice of school counseling.
- Develops measurable outcomes for school counseling programs, activities, interventions, and experiences.
- Analyzes and uses data to enhance school counseling programs.
- Understands the relationship of the school counseling program to the academic mission of the school.
- Understands the concepts, principles, strategies, programs, and practices designed to close the achievement gap, promote student academic success, and prevent students from dropping out of school.
- Understands curriculum design, lesson plan development, classroom management strategies, and differentiated instructional strategies for teaching counseling- and guidance-related material.
Skills and Practices
- Conducts programs designed to enhance student academic development.
- Implements strategies and activities to prepare students for a full range of postsecondary options and opportunities.
- Implements differentiated instructional strategies that draw on subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge and skills to promote student achievement.
Collaboration and Consultation
- Understands the ways in which student development, well-being, and learning are enhanced by family-school-community collaboration.
- Knows strategies to promote, develop, and enhance effective teamwork within the school and the larger community.
- Knows how to build effective working teams of school staff, parents, and community members to promote the academic, career, and personal/social development of students.
- Understands systems theories, models, and processes of consultation in school system settings.
- Knows strategies and methods for working with parents, guardians, families, and communities to empower them to act on behalf of their children.
- Understands the various peer programming interventions (e.g., peer meditation, peer mentoring, peer tutoring) and how to coordinate them.
- Knows school and community collaboration models for crisis/disaster preparedness and response.
Skills and Practices
- Works with parents, guardians, and families to act on behalf of their children to address problems that affect student success in school.
- Locates resources in the community that can be used in the school to improve student achievement and success.
- Consults with teachers, staff, and community-based organizations to promote student academic, career, and personal/social development.
- Uses peer helping strategies in the school counseling program.
- Uses referral procedures with helping agents in the community (e.g., mental health centers, businesses, service groups) to secure assistance for students and their families.
- Knows the qualities, principles, skills, and styles of effective leadership.
- Knows strategies of leadership designed to enhance the learning environment of schools.
- Knows how to design, implement, manage, and evaluate a comprehensive school counseling program.
- Understands the important role of the school counselor as a system change agent.
- Understands the school counselor's role in student assistance programs, school leadership, curriculum, and advisory meetings.
Skills and Practices
- Participates in the design, implementation, management, and evaluation of a comprehensive developmental school counseling program.
- Plans and presents school-counseling-related educational programs for use with parents and teachers (e.g., parent education programs, materials used in classroom guidance and advisor/advisee programs for teachers).